Articles by " Admin"
Jun 16, 2022 - Default    No Comments

Hebrews 希伯来书的作者是谁?

“Both Clement of Alexandria (革利免, c. AD 150 – 215) and Origen (俄利根, AD 185 – 253) claimed a Pauline association for the book but recognized that Paul himself probably did not put pen to paper for this book, even though they did not know the author’s name. Clement of Alexandria suggests that Paul wrote the book originally in Hebrew and that Luke translated it into Greek, though the Greek of Hebrews bears no resemblance to translation Greek (e.g., that of the Septuagint).” (


Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. 6.14.2-3, citing Clement’s Hypotyposes

2. He (Clement) says that the Epistle to the Hebrews is the work of Paul, and that it was written to the Hebrews in the Hebrew language; but that Luke translated it carefully and published it for the Greeks, and hence the same style of expression is found in this epistle and in the Acts.

3. But he says that the words, Paul the Apostle, were probably not prefixed, because, in sending it to the Hebrews, who were prejudiced and suspicious of him, he wisely did not wish to repel them at the very beginning by giving his name.


Jun 16, 2022 - Default    No Comments



  • Ignatius of Antioch (伊格那修, 35-107 AD)
  • Polycarp (坡旅甲, 69-155 AD)
  • Papias (帕皮亚, 60-130 AD)

“Both Ignatius (伊格那修) and Polycarp (坡旅甲) were the disciples of John (使徒约翰). In fact there is this great legend in church history that as Ignatius was John’s disciple, and Polycarp was John’s disciple, then Polycarp was also Ignatius’ disciple.
Polycarp would go on to disciple Irenaeus (爱任纽).” (

“According to the second century Bishop Irenaeus (爱任纽) of Lyons, Papias (帕皮亚) was a hearer of John the Apostle (使徒约翰).” (

Jun 2, 2022 - Default    No Comments


“第一个称为假设必须论 (hypothetical necessity),第二个称为 结果的 绝对必须论 (consequent absolute necessity)。前者是著名人物如奥古斯丁 (Augustine) 和亚奎 (Thomas Aquinas) 的主张,后者则算是较传统的基督教立场 (加尔文, 基督教要义, II.16.5)。

假设必须论主张不需要用代赎或补偿 (satisfaction) 去赦免罪恶和拯救被拣选的人。神可以用多种他法,因为他是无所不能的。但神以恩典和至高无上的智慧所选择的方法是神子代替牺牲献祭,因为这方法能同时引发最多的好处,又更能彰显神恩典的奇妙。所以,虽然神「可以」不用代赎来救人,但按着神至高无上的旨意,他实际上没有这样做。若不流血,就实际上没有赦罪或救恩。不过,神的本性或赦罪的本质不是要求非流血不可的。

“第二个说法称为 结果的 绝对必须论。「结果的」(consequent) 这用辞在此指出神救任何人的旨意或预旨都是出于自由的、主权的恩典 (换句话说:神的旨意所导致的结果)。拯救失丧的人,不是神绝对必须做的,却是全权的意旨所喜悦做的。然而,「绝对必须性」(absolute necessity) 这个术语表示神既按着他意旨所喜悦的拣选了一些人得永生,因着他本性的完全,他就必须用他儿子的牺牲献祭来达成救人的目的。总而言之,虽然神并无内在的必须去救人,但是自从他已计划救恩后,他就必须用替代的献祭和血价的买赎作救偿来成就这救恩。”

John Murray – Redemption Accomplished and Applied


Consequent Absolute Necessity
结果的 绝对必须论
神的旨意所导致的结果的 绝对必须论
神旨意之后果的 绝对必须论
神旨所致的 绝对必须论
神旨意的 绝对必须论
神定意的 绝对必须论

Jun 2, 2022 - Default    No Comments

Absolute Consequent Necessity

“The atonement is an absolute consequent necessity. By that, we mean that God was not obligated to redeem His people, but once He had chosen to do so (by His own will and for HIs good pleasure) the atonement became absolutely necessary. It was consequent to His decree, but necessary. That also means that there is no other way for God to be both just and the justifier of sinners.” (fredtgreco)